:MsC in Biology, PhD in "Virus Immunobiology". She worked at the laboratory of Prof. Thomas J. Braciale, Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (USA) from March 1990 to July 1991. On 3 July 1992, she became Researcher in Microbiology, Department of Experimental, Infectious and Public Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pisa. From January 1992 to September 1994 she worked as a researcher at the Institut für Experimentelle Immunologie, Universitätsspital Zürich (Switzerland) (Prof.Rolf M. Zinkernagel and Hans Hengartner laboratory). On 3 July 1995, she got her tenure position as a Researcher of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pisa. From 1999 to 1016 she was involved part-time in diagnostic activity as a microbiologist, at the University Hospital, University of Pisa, currently directed by Prof. Mauro Pistello. As of December 2016 she is an associate professor at the Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine, University of Pisa.